English Narration Information Blog


हिंदी भाषा में English Narration (Direct Narration Indirect Narration) की खास जानकारी

English Narration के कथन 

किसी भी कथन को हम दो रूपों में प्रस्तुत कर सकते है. प्रत्यक्ष कथन ( Direct Narration Indirect Narration Direct Speech, Indirect Speech) और अप्रत्यक्ष कथन Indirect speech. Direct Speech में वक्ता की उक्ति उसी के शब्दों में रहती है, किन्तु Indirect Speech वक्ता की उक्ति का सारांश रहता है.



इस सम्बंध में यह स्मरण रखना आवश्यक है कि Direct speech में Inverted commas ( इनवर्टेड कोमाज ) के भीतर के शब्द या वाक्य को ( Reported Speech ) तथा उसको सूचित ( Introduce ) करने वाली क्रिया को Reporting verb कहते है. Inverted commas के बाहर के शब्दों को Reporting speech कहते है. उदहारण के लिए – He says to me, You are a good boy, इस कथन में You are a good boy, Reported Speech Says – Reporting verb तथा He says to me ये इसका Reporting Speech है.

 

English Narration (Direct Narration Indirect Narration Speech) और Narration पर्यायवाची शब्द है.

अब आप एक बात अच्छी तरह याद रखे कि जब Reported Speech अर्थात पहला भाग यदि Present Tense में है या Future Tense में है तो Reported speech का Tense अर्थात ‘काल’ नहीं बदलेगा. मोटे रूप में यदि वाक्य का प्रारम्भ होता है. He says, she says, I say, You say, or He will say, she will say, They will say, I shall say, We shall say तो Reported speech अर्थात वाक्य के दुसरे भाग का Tense यानी काल नहीं बदलेगा. उदहारण के लिए He says, I shall go to Delhi. इसका Indirect Narration या speech होगा. He says that he will go to Delhi. आपने देखा कि वाक्य का पहला भाग Present Tense में था. अर्थात Reporting speech, Present Tense में थी और Reported speech अर्थात वाक्य का दूसरा भाग Future Indefinite Tense में था तो Future Indefinite Tense वाला भाग अर्थात वाक्य का दूसरा हिस्सा Tense नहीं बदला अर्थात काल वही रहा और उसमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं हुआ. ठीक इसी प्रकार यदि किसी वाक्य की Reporting speech future tense में हो जैसे He will say, I am a scholar कहेगा, मैं एक विद्वान् हू. अब इस वाक्य का पहला भाग अर्थात Reporting speech तो Future Indefinite Tense में है पर वाक्य का दूसरा भाग Present Indefinite Tense में है. यहाँ पर भी जब हम Indirect Speech में बदलेंगे तो Reported speech अर्थात वाक्य के दुसरे भाग का Tense नहीं बदलेगा. जैसे He will say that he is scholar यह कहेगा कि वह एक विद्वान है. परिवर्तन तो आता है, जब Reporting speech भूतकाल अर्थात past tense में हो. जैसे She Said, I am a good girl. इसका बनेगा She said that she was a good girl. आपने देखा यहाँ दैट (That) के बाद वाला हिस्सा जो Reported Speech में Present Tense में था. अब बदलकर Past Tense अर्थात भूतकाल में आ गया है. तो आइये इस परिवर्तन को Tenses के अनुसार समझे.

English Narration Information in Hindi

English Narration Information in Hindi

 

Past Tense        Present Tense

English Narration पहला नियम – यदि Reported speech, Present Indefinite Tense में हो तो वाक्य Past Indefinite Tense में बदल जायेगा. जैसे –

Direct – He Said, I write a book.

Indirect  –  He said that he wrote a book.

Direct – I said, The teacher writes a letter.

Indirect – I said that teacher wrote a letter.

Direct – She said, you go for a walk.

Indirect – She said that you went for a walk.

 

Direct Narration Indirect Narration दूसरा नियम – यदि Reported speech, Present Continuous Tense में हो तो वाक्य Past Continuous Tense में बदल जाएगा. जैसे –

Direct – I said, The teacher is writing a letter.

Indirect – I said that the teacher was writing a letter.

Direct – He said, I am writing a book.

Indirect – He said that he was writing a book.

Direct – She said, you are going for a walk.

Indirect – She said that he was going for a walk.

 

English Narration तीसरा नियम – यदि Reported speech, Present Perfect Tense में हो तो वाक्य Past Perfect Tense बनाया जाता है. जैसे –

Direct – I said, The Teacher has written a letter.

Indirect – I said that the teacher had written a letter.

Direct – He said, I have written a book.

Indirect – He said that he had written a book.

Direct – She said, you have gone for a walk.

Indirect – She said that you had gone for a walk.

 

English Narration चौथा नियम – यदि Reported speech, Present perfect continuous tense में हो तो वाक्य Past Perfect Continuous Tense में बदल जायेगा. जैसे –

Direct – I said, The teacher has been writing a letter since 2 p.m.

Indirect – I said that the teacher had been writing a letter since 2 p.m.

Direct  – He said, I have been writing a book since Nov 2002.

Indirect – He said that he had been writing a book since Nov 2002.

Direct – She said, You have been going for a walk since 7 a.m.

Indirect – She said that you had been going for a walk since 7 a.m.

 

English Narration पाचवा नियम – यदि Reported speech past indefinite tense में हो तो वाक्य Past Perfect Tense में बदल जायेगा. जैसे –

Direct – I said, The teacher wrote a letter.

Indirect – I said that the teacher had written a letter.

Direct – He said, I wrote a book.

Indirect – He said that he had written a book.

Direct – She said, You went for a walk.

Indirect – She said that you had gone for a walk.

 

English Narration छठा नियम – यदि Reported speech past continuous tense में हो तो वाक्य Past perfect continuous tense में बदल जाएगा. जैसे –

Direct – I said, The teacher was writing a letter.

Indirect – I said that the teacher had been writing a letter.

Direct – He said, I was writing a book.

Indirect – He said that he had been writing a book.

Direct – She said, You were going for a walk.

Indirect – She said that he had been going for a walk.

 

English Narration सातवा नियम – यदि Reported speech past perfect tense में हो तो वाक्य का Past Perfect Tense नहीं बदलता. इसी प्रकार यदि Reported speech, Past  perfect continuous tense में हो तो वाक्य का Tense नहीं बदलता. जैसे –

Direct – I said, The teacher has written a chart.

Indirect – I said that the teacher had written.

Direct – The girl said, I had seen him daily.

Indirect – The girl said that she had seen him daily.

Direct – I said, The teacher has been writing.

Indirect – I said that  the teacher had been writing.

Direct – The girl said, I had been seeing him daily.

Indirect – The girl said that she had been seeing him daily.

 

(Note – shall=should, Will=would, may=might, can=could में बदला जाता है.)

Direct – We said, The mother shall write a letter.

Indirect – We said that the mother will write a letter.

Direct – We said, The mother should write a letter.

Indirect – We said that the mother would write a letter.

Direct – We said, The Mother may Write.

Indirect – We said that the mother might write.

Direct – We said, The mother can write.

Indirect – We said that the mother could write.

इसके अतिरिक्त this=that, these=these, here=there, hither=thither, thus=so, hence=thence में बदल जाते है. इसके साथ यह भी याद रखे कि today=that day, yesterday=previous day, tomorrow=the next day, last night=the previous night, next week=following week, ago=before, come=go, must=had to में परिवर्तित हो जाता है.

यहाँ तक आपने सभी English Narration के नियमो को सविस्तार पढ़ लिया, जिनका प्रयोग डायरेक्ट से इनडायरेक्ट वाक्यों को बनाने के लिए किया जाना चाहिए. तो आइये, हम कुछ उदाहरणों को देखे जो इस प्रक्रिया को और सुदृढ़ बनाने में हमारी सहायता करेंगे.

तो आइये कुछ Direct और Indirect वर्ड को देखा जाए.

Direct – She says I like grapes.  वह कहती है, मुझे अंगूर पसंद है.

Indirect – She says that she likes grapes. वह कहती है कि उसे अंगूर पसंद है.

Direct – They will say, These are good girls.  वे कहेंगे, ये अच्छी लडकिया है.

Indirect – They will say that those are good girls.   वे कहेंगे कि वे अच्छी लड़कियां है.

Direct – She said, I may come this evening. उसने कहा शायद मैं आज शाम आऊ.

Indirect –  She said that she might come that evening. उसने कहा कि वह उस संध्या आ सकती थी.

Direct – He will say, I bought a pen. वह कहेंगा, मैंने एक पेन ख़रीदा.

Indirect – He will say that he bought a pen. वह कहेगा कि उसने एक पेन ख़रीदा.

Direct – I say, My name is Munna. मैं कहता हूँ, मेरा नाम मुन्ना है.

Indirect –  I say that my name is Munna. मैं कहता हूँ कि मेरा नाम मुन्ना है.

Direct – He said I was going there. उसने कहा मैं वहा जा रहा था.

Indirect –  He said that he had been going there. उसने कहा कि वह वहाँ जा रहा था.

 

English Narration  नोट – यदि किसी भी वाक्य में Reported speech, Universal Truth या History Truth (एतिहासिक सत्य) या Habitual Fact (स्वाभाविक तथ्य) प्रकट करे तो Reported speech का टेंस नहीं बदलता. जैसा कि आपने देखा था कि जब Reporting speech, Present Tense में हो या Future Tense में हो Reported speech का टेंस नहीं बदलता. तो आइये कुछ वाक्य इस प्रकार के भी देखे.

Direct – He said, India won freedom in 1947. उसने कहा भारत 1947 को स्वतंत्र हुआ.

Indirect – He said that India won freedom in 1947. उसने कहा कि भारत 1947 को स्वतंत्र हुआ.

Direct –  My father said, The sun rises in the east. मेरे पिता ने कहा, सूर्य पूर्व से उदरय

Indirect – My father said that the sun rises in the east. मेरे पिता ने कहा कि सूर्य पूर्व से उदय होता है.

Direct – The teacher said, The earth is round. अध्यापक ने कहा, पृथ्वी गोल है.

Indirect – The teacher said that the earth is round. अध्यापक ने कहा कि पृथ्वी गोल है.

Direct – She said, The Hindus burn the dead. उसने कहा हिन्दू मृतको को जलाते है.

Indirect – She said that the Hindus burn the dead. उसने कहा कि हिन्दू मृतको को जलाते है.

Direct – The principal said, The sun sets in the west. प्रिंसिपल ने कहा. सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है.

Indirect – The principal said that the sun sets in the west. प्रिंसिपल ने कहा कि सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है.

English Narration  नोट – जिन शब्दों में क्रिया (Verb) के बाद कर्म (Object) होता है, उनमे said to को टोल्ड में बदल दिया जाता है जैसे

Direct – He said to me,  I will return from Bombay after vacation. उसने मुझसे कहा मैं अवकाश के बाद बम्बई से वापस आऊंगा.

Indirect –  He told to me that he would return from Bombay after vacation. उसने मुझसे कहा कि वह अवकाश के बाद बम्बई से वापस आएगा.

 

Direct – The teacher said to me , Work hard if you want to pass. अध्यापक ने मुझसे कहा, परिश्रम करो यदि पास होना चाहते हो.

Indirect –  The teacher advised me to work hard if I wanted to pass. अध्यापक ने मुझे सलाह दी कि यदि पास होना चाहते हो तो कठिन परिश्रम करो.

 

Direct – My father said to me, You are a good boy. मेरे पिता ने मुझसे कहा, तुम एक अच्छे लड़के हो.

Indirect – My father told me that I was a good boy. मेरे पिता ने मुझसे कहा कि मैं एक अच्छा लड़का हूँ.

 

Direct – He said to me, My name is not on record. उसने मुझसे कहा, मेरा नाम रिकॉर्ड में नहीं है.

Indirect –  He told me that his name was not on record. उसने मुझसे कहा कि उसका नाम रिकार्ड ने नही है.

 

Direct – My mother said to me, I am going to your teacher. मेरी माता ने कहा, मैं तुम्हारे अध्यापक के पास जा रही हूँ.

Indirect –  My mother told me that she was going to my teacher. मेरी माता ने मुझसे कहा कि वह मेरे अध्यापक के पास जा रही है.

 

English Narration  नोट – शब्दों को बदलकर जैसे Now=Then आदि.

Direct – Madhu said, I can not help it here. मधु ने कहा, मैं यहां कुछ नहीं कर सकती.

Indirect –  Madhu said that she could not help it there. मधु ने कहा कि वह वहाँ कुछ नहीं कर सकती.

Direct – She said, Ajay had come here yesterday. उसने कहा अजय यहाँ कल आया था.

Indirect – She said that Ajany had come there the previous day. उसने कहा कि अजय यहाँ एक दिन पहले आया है.

Direct – She said, This is a new pen. उसने कहा यह एक नया कलम है.

Indirect – She said that was a new pen. उसने कहा कि वह एक नया कलम था.

Direct – He said, I am going now. उसने कहा, मैं अब जा रहा हूँ.

Indirect – He said that he was going then. उसने कहा कि वह तब जा रहा था.

Direct – Radha said, These are my books. राधा ने कहा, ये मेरी पुस्तक है.

Indirect – Radha said that those were her books. राधा ने कहा कि वे उसकी पुस्तके है.

 

नोट – वे वाक्य जो प्रसन्नता शोक आदि भावो को प्रकट करते है, उनमे Reporting Verb को Exclaim

Direct – They boys said, Hurrah we have won the match.

Indirect – The boys exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

Direct – She said, Would that I were a queen? उसने कहा काश कि मैं रानी होती.

Indirect – She wished that she were a queen. उसने इच्छा प्रकट की कि वह रानी होती.

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India Hindi Blog हिंदी भाषी लोगो के लिए बनाया गया है, ये भारत के उन सभी लोगो के लिए है जो खुद ऑनलाइन पढ़ना चाहते है, अपने ज्ञान को बढाना चाहते है. हर तरह की जानकारियों से अपने आपको अपडेट रखना चाहते है. इसलिए हमारे द्वारा इस ब्लॉग को आपके लिए तैयार किया गया. आप इस ब्लॉग में सभी तरह की जानकारियों का ज्ञान ले सकते है. इस ब्लॉग में आपको चिकित्सा, टेक्नोलॉजी, खेल, सामान्य ज्ञान, इतिहास, अनमोल विचार, इन सभी का संग्रह आपके लिए यहाँ पर उपलब्ध है.

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2 Responses

  1. Kishan chaubey says:

    Very very nice blog
    And i love grammar

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